power eating 4th edition is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public Download [PDF] Power Eating 4th Edition Free Online | New. Power Eating-4th Edition Paperback – August 2, Gain muscle, cut fat, and elevate your power and performance levels. With a résumé that includes work with many NFL and NBA athletes as well as world-class bodybuilders, Susan Kleiner brings you a resource like no other. kleiner pdf power eating is a scientific blueprint for helping strength and power inentertainment power eating 4th edition pdf power eating-4th edition susan.

Power Eating 4th Edition Pdf

Language:English, German, Japanese
Country:South Africa
Genre:Children & Youth
Published (Last):08.08.2016
ePub File Size:29.53 MB
PDF File Size:20.62 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Register to download]
Uploaded by: ANNELLE

Power Eating 4th Edition - [Free] Power Eating 4th Edition [PDF] [EPUB] Test Essentials of Economics 4th Edition by Krugman for only 89 Get Free Read & Download Files Power Eating 4th Edition PDF. POWER EATING 4TH EDITION. Download: Power Eating 4th Edition. POWER EATING 4TH. eating 4th edition pdf power eating-4th edition susan kleiner, maggie greenwood -robinson visiting a brick and mortar library is no longer power eating-4th.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, ut vidit quaestio mel, cum et albucius comprehensam. Ad veri latine efficiantur quo, ea vix nisl euismod explicari.

Mel prima vivendum aliquando ut. Sit suscipit tincidunt no, ei usu pertinax molestiae assentior. Eam in nulla regione evertitur. Dico menandri eum an, accusam salutandi et cum, virtute insolens platonem id nec. Ut habeo summo impedit has, sea eius tritani sapientem eu.

Vel laudem legimus ut, consul nominavi indoctum ex pri. Falli omnesque vivendum eos ad, ei hinc diceret eos. Nam no nonumes volumus quaerendum, cu meis graeci audiam vis. In ullum ludus evertitur nec. Solum mentitum quo et, no ancillae legendos mel. Quo verear neglegentur et. The problem with such a diet is that it lacks variety, and without a variety of foods, you miss out on nutrients essential for peak health.

By contest day you certainly are not the picture of health, either. Fruit, of course, is packed with disease-fighting, health-building antioxidants and phy- tochemicals. Dairy products supply important nutrients such as bone-building calcium and bioactive proteins that promote lean muscle growth. And red meat is an important source of vital minerals such as iron and zinc. When people limit or eliminate such foods from their diet, potentially serious deficiencies begin to show up.

In studies conducted by myself and others, the most common deficiencies observed are those of calcium and zinc, particularly during the precompetition season. Many female bodybuilders have danger- ous shortages of these minerals year round. A chronic short supply of calcium increases the risk of osteoporosis, a crippling bone-thinning disease.

In short, deficits of these minerals can harm health and performance. But the good news is that skim milk, red meat, and dark-meat poultry will help alleviate some of these problems. A 3-ounce 90 g portion of lean sirloin beef has about 6 mil- ligrams of zinc; nonfat, 1 percent, or 2 percent milk has about 1 milligram of zinc in one 8-ounce ml glass; and 3 ounces 90 g of dark-meat turkey have about 4 milligrams of zinc.

Another nutritional problem among bodybuilders is fluid restriction. Compound- ing the problem, many bodybuilders take diuretics and laxatives, a practice that flushes more water, as well as precious minerals called electrolytes, from the body. Generally, bodybuilders compete in a dehydrated state.

At one contest, I saw two people pass out on stage—one because of severe dehydration, the other because of an electrolyte imbalance. But such dietary indulgence over a long time can lead to extra body fat. Most bodybuilders, however, do a lot of things right, especially during the train- ing season.

For one thing, they eat several meals throughout the day—a practice that nutritionists recommend to the general public. Time and Combine Your Food and Nutrients To achieve superb shape and maximum performance, forgo the usual approach of three meals a day.

Active people must fuel themselves throughout the day, eating small meals and snacks every two to three hours, preferably timed around their workout schedules. When eating multiple meals, you always want to combine protein with carbohy- drate and fat. Examples would be a turkey sandwich, a sprouted grain bread with peanut butter, or an apple with nuts.

Eating multiple meals also promotes variety in your diet and keeps your blood sugar levels even so that you avoid peaks and valleys throughout the day a cycle that happens to promote fat storage.

You also burn fat better because protein, as well as eating multiple small meals, has been shown to increase thermogenesis, the process by which your body converts ingested calories and stored fat into heat. Another advantage of multiple meals is mental performance. Eating regular, timed meals helps you think and process information more effectively, increases your attention span, and boosts your mood. The bottom line is that eating small, frequent meals throughout the day is the best fat-burning, muscle-building strategy you can integrate into your lifestyle.

Table 1. The supplements listed in the table are discussed in detail elsewhere in this book. Use a Food Plan Any nutritional program aimed at losing body fat and building muscle should be based on a food plan that emphasizes lean protein, natural carbohydrate, and good fat. It should also include sample menus and recipes as well as information on how to make healthy selections that are personalized to your lifestyle. It should be neither so restrictive that it invites failure nor so unstructured as to be confus- ing.

These are precisely the guidelines for food planning that you will find here. More specifically, if your goals are to develop lean muscle while reducing body fat, then your plan should take into consideration several factors, including balanc- ing protein, carbohydrate, and fat; increasing your water intake; organizing your food into multiple meals; timing your intake; and incorporating certain dietary supplements into the mix.

Never skip this meal! It improves physical and mental performance and helps regulate weight. Small, frequent protein—carbohydrate meals and snacks every h. Before exercise Fluids: At least 8 oz ml before exercise. Preexercise meal: At least 4 h before exercise so that the body properly assimilates carbohydrate for use by muscles.

Preexercise snack: Snack should consist of calories, including g carbohydrate, g protein, and no more than g fat. Snack can be food or meal-replacement supplement. This snack will provide additional energy for prolonged stamina and help decrease exercise-induced breakdown of muscle protein.

Download Power Eating-4th Edition PDF Free

During exercise Fluids: Sipping these during a workout has been shown to extend endurance. After exercise Fluids: Replace each pound 0. Consume 0. Postexercise snacks can be in the form of meal-replacement beverages with 0. Follow this within 2 h of exercise with a meal containing lots of unprocessed carbo- hydrate and high-quality protein sources e.

Recovery supplements: Consume these with your meal replacement: You have to be exact about what you eat, and you need to make the right choices. Each calorie that you put into your mouth has to be results oriented. To drive your fat-burning machinery and lose weight, for example, you need to eat specific foods, such as dairy foods, whey protein, fish, soy, nuts, olives and olive oil, and green tea, to name a few.

One of the strongest men in Greece, Milo was the wrestling victor in five Olympic Games and many other festivals. As the legend goes, he applied progressive resistance training by lifting a growing calf daily.

Power Eating 4th Edition PDF

When the calf was four years old, he carried it the length of the Olympian stadium, killed it, roasted it, and ate it. It is written that his normal daily intake of meat was about 20 pounds 9 kg. In the s and s, many people thought protein was a miracle food because muscle magazines hyped it so much. Bodybuilders and other athletes would follow diets made up mostly of meat, milk, and eggs. The raw-egg milk- shake was particularly popular, thanks to Rocky Balboa.

Why would anyone swill such a concoction? The answer is simple: Articles and advertising from those days falsely communicated the notion that protein from raw foods, particularly eggs, is more available to the body for building muscle than protein from cooked foods is.

Not only is this notion absolutely untrue, it is dangerous. Eating raw eggs is a hazardous practice because eggs may be contaminated with the microorganisms that cause salmonella poisoning. Cooking eggs destroys bacteria, eliminating the risk of contracting this serious illness.

Raw eggs should be avoided completely. If you want to add eggs to a supplemental drink, try pasteurized egg-white prod- ucts instead of raw eggs, which is a safer practice. This form of egg whites can be cooked as well. Cooking also makes protein more readily available to your body. A protein molecule is a string of amino acids connected like a strand of pearls. If two strands of pearls were wound together and then twisted to double up on each other, they would resemble a protein molecule.

Heating or cooking the protein molecule unwinds the string of amino acids, straightens it out, and separates it into smaller pieces. This is the process of heat denaturing, which is similar to the process of chemical denaturing, otherwise known as digestion. Cooking foods with protein can begin the digestive process and can actually decrease the net energy that the body must expend during digestion. Protein is extremely vital in your diet, but by itself, it is not the magic bullet for muscle gain.

Instead, protein and carbohydrate together are the magic bullet, especially in combination with the right kinds of fat. In other words, you must place equal emphasis on the right types of protein, carbohydrate, and fat in your diet. These nutrients work in concert to give you the edge on building body-firming muscle. To build lean, quality muscle, strength train to trigger muscle growth and follow my recommended diet, which includes lean protein to repair damaged tissue and carbohydrate to fuel the rebuilding process.

Beyond those critical factors, your ultimate success or failure boils down to your ability to recover—that is, how fast and effectively you can bounce back from your training efforts. The two main types of inflamma- tion are classic and systemic. Classic inflammation, which accompanies physical injuries, results in swelling and pain; this is part of the protection and repair process and is considered relatively benign.

Recent research suggests that systemic inflammation of systems or tissues may be the root of the fastest-growing preventable diseases: These are generally considered lifestyle diseases because of their linked risk factors and the habits that have been proven to help prevent and reverse them diet and exercise. Both types of inflammation exist throughout your body in various degrees and are influenced by external factors such as the food you eat, your workouts, and even the air you breathe.

Researchers in South Korea found that eating large quantities of sugar and fats, even from just a few meals, causes an increased concentration of free radicals in the bloodstream, which creates inflammation in the body. Power Profiles: Calorie Sources Calories are certainly important in building muscle mass; however, the source of those calories is crucial if you want to maximize muscle and minimize body fat.

A case in point is a professional rookie football player who wanted to lose weight to improve his speed on the field. Unless he trimmed down, his chance to be on the team was in jeopardy, so he needed a dramatic nutritional rescue.

This football player was eating slightly more than 7, calories a day. Broken down, those calories figured out to about 17 percent protein, 32 percent fat, and 49 percent carbohydrate. In daily fat grams, he was con- suming a whopping grams a day. The composition of his calories was an impediment to losing fat. I reconfigured his diet to 5, calories a day; 15 percent of those calories came from protein, 25 percent from fat, and 60 percent from carbohydrate.

That mix slashed his fat grams to a healthier grams a day. He was eating a lot of unhealthy fat in foods such as fried chicken, whole milk, and fast foods. For the high-fat foods, we substituted skinless chicken breasts, 1 percent milk, and fast-food choices such as salads and frozen yogurt that were lower in fat.

In addition, we modified some of his favorite dishes such as sweet potato pie into healthier versions. He also began to load up on foods containing complex carbohydrate, such as brown rice, whole-wheat bread, fruits, and vegetables.

Plus, he was using leaner protein sources with a wider variety of choices. The upshot of these dietary changes was that he lost the weight, made the team, and had a great season. He is still a professional football player today. The answer goes back to the science of nutritional anthropology. According to inves- tigators of early human life and lifestyles, our ancestors consumed and expended approximately 3, calories per day, at least on average.

These calories were not necessarily consumed daily, but the foods they ate were very dense in nutrients and low in calories. Overall, a high amount of nutrient-dense foods made up the daily diet. When early humans exercised, it was in short bursts such as when spearing a predator, in very long-duration, low-intensity activity such as when tracking prey, or in long, moderate-intensity activity such as when seeking new hunting grounds or foraging for roots and berries.

At the same time, they also had long periods of recovery. By consuming that many calories each day, our ances- tors were taking in enough nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals for good health. They had virtually the same bodies we have today, yet because we eat fewer than 3, calories daily, we definitely don't get in the nutrition we need. The answer to this conundrum lies in supplementation.

We need to supplement to achieve optimum performance and to continually enhance our performance and our health. Today, the supplement industry has recognized that consumers are looking for better-quality supplements.

Some companies have pulled the supplement indus- try up by its bootstraps, conducting third-party laboratory testing for purity and potency and raising the bar of consumer expectations and quality guarantees.

These companies have even conducted scientific studies on their products to ensure that they are pure, and that they work. These are very promising develop- ments in the supplement industry. Another promising development is occurring in a category of foods called functional foods. These are foods or food ingredients that can prevent disease or improve health.

Some well-known examples are calcium-fortified orange juice and fiber-enhanced cereal. But practically everything from milk to protein shakes to chocolate is being upgraded to functional food status through the addition of nutrient all-stars such as calcium, antioxidants, omega-3 essential fat, and probiotics. Other foods, such as Greek yogurt, green tea, berries, and most vegetables, are naturally functional. Functional foods provide extra nutrients, vitamins, minerals, protein, phytochemicals, enzymes, and other elements that give you energy, help fight disease and aging, and, for strength trainers, build muscle.

So along with eating clean and pure food, taking targeted, high-quality supplements and enhancing your diet with functional foods most definitely will give you an edge. If you still eat fish, dairy, and eggs, the plan is really easy to follow. There is no need to eat meat or poultry. Whenever you see lean or very lean protein servings in the menu plan, just substitute fish or plant protein from such sources as beans or legumes. One-half cup of beans is equivalent to one very lean protein serving, plus one starch serving.

Substitute soy foods for eggs in the menu. They both contain the important phospholipids i. Just make sure to eat soy foods that contain all the natural fat, such as soy- beans, edamame, tofu, tempeh, and whole soy milk or yogurt with the fat still in it. Usesoymilkorother plant-based milks such as rice milk, almond milk, or coconut milk.

Make sure they are fortified with calcium and vitamins A and D, all of which are very important for brain and body health. However, if you account for that otherwise in your diet, you will benefit from the fortification of calcium and vitamins that these milks provide. Unfortunately, there is no good substitute for fish. Only 5 percent of the type of omega-3 fat from flaxseed and other vegetable sources alpha-linolenic acid, ALA is converted into the two omega-3 fats found in fish docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentanoic acid, EPA.

These are the two critical fats needed by the heart, brain, and central nervous system, and for all-around general health. Although the protein from fish is excellent, you can substitute other protein for a similar benefit. However, nothing that we currently know of substitutes for marine oils. If you are allergic to fish, then you must consult your physician before using a supple- ment. Some of my vegan clients those who eat no animal products of any kind have decided to use fish oil supplements because it is such an important health issue, and they feel the difference.

But this is certainly a personal choice. Alternatively, there is a supplemental algae source of docosahexaenoic acid DHA. The algae has been modified to produce the marine oil, DHA.

It is available only in supplement form, not from the algae itself. Currently, this supplement can be quite expensive, and because of the amount of DHA in each pill, you may need to take or so daily to consume what you need. But the product is available if all other options are not viable. As a result of increasing consumer demand, these products are quickly improving in cost and dosage.

If you have eliminated all animal products from your diet, you must add some important nutrients back in. To add vitamins B12 and D to your diet, you can download foods fortified with them, or you can take a multivitamin—mineral supplement. Active women especially may have difficulty taking in enough iron and zinc. These Eatplentyofdarkgreenleafyveggies, which contain calcium and iron.

Also, choose calcium-fortified soy milk and orange juice. A supplement can also cover your calcium needs. Oneofthe hardestthingsaboutlosingweightiskeepingitoff. Severalstudieshaveidentifiedmany diet plans that can help you lose weight, but the problem is finding one you can stick withforlongerthanafewmonths.

Somestudieshaveshownthatpeopleonvegetarian weight-lossplanswereabletostickwiththemlongerthanpeoplewhoundertooksome of the well-known diet fads.

A study conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill investigated the difference in weight-loss outcomes after one and two years between a group of postmenopausal women who followed a vegan diet and a group who followed a more moderate low-fat diet. The study also compared women who were offered support group follow-up and those who were on their own.

Vegans lost more weight and maintained a greater weight loss after one and two years. Those participants who received follow-up support maintained an even greater weight loss. A study published in the International Journal of Obesity showed no greater weight loss or maintenance over 18 months in participants following a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet pattern than in those following a standard calorie- and fat-reduced diet.

Plant-based diets appear to be protective against several types of cancer, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, lung, colon, esophagus, and stomach. Vegetarian-style eating may protect you from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, age-related macular degeneration, and overall mortality. These studies raise a number of questions. Should athletes or people trying to increasemusclesize,strength,andpowerrestricttheirintakeofanimalproteinfoods?

Can they achieve their goals by adopting vegetarian diets or vegan diets? Or should they adopt a more varied diet following a more omnivorous pattern, including both animal protein and plant protein?

There has been quite a bit of research in this area, but the questions remain largely unanswered.

Studies do show that you can build muscle on both types of diets. What I have found in my own practice, however, is that it is very difficult to create a high-per- formance nutrition program if you are a vegan i.

The time required to shop, plan, and prepare a vegan diet is excessive if you are an athlete living on your own and responsible for your own meals. Vegan diets are high in fiber, which promotes health; however, that much fiber is filling, making it difficult to exercise at peak capacity. The vegan concept may sound good philosophically and in theory, but in practice, it is virtually impossible to carry out.

Are Organic Foods Better for You? With the amount of food strength trainers eat, many are opting to go organic to avoid the chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and additives used in many foods. Do you get an advantage in downloading organic foods? In general, organically grown foods are grown in soil enriched with organic fertil- izers rather than synthetic fertilizers and treated only with nonsynthetic pesticides.

Organic farms use a soil-building program that promotes vibrant soil and healthy plants, usually including crop rotations and biological pest control. We tend to think of the term organic as pertaining to fruits and vegetables only. However, organic meat, poultry, and egg products also exist. These foods come from farms that have been inspected to verify that they meet rigorous standards mandating the use of organic feed, prohibiting the use of antibiotics, and giving animals access to the outdoors, fresh air, and sunlight.

You can tell the difference between organically produced food and convention- ally produced food by looking at package labels. The United States Department of Agriculture USDA has developed strict labeling rules to help consumers know the exact organic content of the food they download. Organic foods may have some advantages over conventionally produced foods. Here is what some of the latest research shows: Organic food may be somewhat higher in vitamin C and perhaps other minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals.

In one study, children who ate organic produce and juice had only one-sixth the level of pesticide by-products in their urine, compared to children who ate conventionally produced food. There are thus some important safety justifications for eating organic food.

One study found that farmworkers who apply pesticides as part of conventional farming have higher concentrations of pesticides in their bodies. Conceivably, a continuation of the trend toward organic farming may help protect farmworkers from unhealthy exposures. Organic farming methods are less harmful to the environment than conven- tional methods. The use of natural products helps to improve the soil. Organic pest control generally relies on preventive measures such as crop rotation and biological controls.

These methods place little to no stress on the earth or its wildlife inhabitants. With organic agriculture now being embraced as environmentally sound and more sustainable than mainstream agriculture, consumers believe they are contributing to a better future and an improved environment, according to one survey. Here in Seattle, where I live, lots of organic food is grown locally.

See a Problem?

Whether you decide to go organic, the most important move you can make health- wise is to eat more fruits and vegetables, organic or not. Much research shows that people can improve their health and the quality of their lives by consuming more plant foods. Despite the use of pesticides, populations that eat large amounts of fruits and vegetables have lower rates of cancer and other life-threatening illnesses than populations that eat few fruits and vegetables.

In the end, the choice is yours. downloading organic foods is not just a nutritional issue but a political, social, and personal issue as well.

If you want to treat the earth well and potentially protect workers from pesticide exposure, speak with your pock- etbook: download organic. Use a scrub brush, and rinse the produce thor- oughly under running water. Peeling removes pesticides that remain in or on the peel but also removes fibers, vitamins, and minerals.

Those vegan athletes who are successful typically are already genetically gifted in their sport, and they often have a support team to help them plan, shop, and cook. Whenever possible, I encourage my clients to follow a mixed-protein diet that is plant centered but not exclusively plant based. Where Do You Stand Now?

This analysis will make the following chapters more relevant and interesting. With this analysis handy, you can find out quickly. Using the form provided in appendix A, record everything you eat over the course of three days. Choose days that best represent your typical diet. Be as accurate as you can in terms of the amount of food you eat. Use the information in chapters 10 and 11 to help you figure out nutrients and calories.

Protein is present everywhere in the body—in muscles, bones, connective tissue, blood vessels, blood cells, skin, hair, and fingernails. This protein is constantly being lost or broken down as a result of normal physiological wear and tear and must be replaced. For example, about half of the total amount of protein in muscle tissue is broken down and replaced every days.

The mechanism by which this repair occurs is really quite amazing. During diges- tion, protein in food is dismantled by other proteins enzymes into subunits called amino acids. Amino acids then enter cells, and other enzymes, acting on instruc- tions from DNA, put them back together as the new proteins needed to build and repair tissue.

Virtually no other system in the world repairs itself so wonderfully. Every day, this process goes on and life continues. Under any condition of growth—childhood, pregnancy, muscle building—the body manufactures more cells than are lost. From an energy source such as carbo- hydrate or fat, the body can manufacture many of the materials needed to make new cells. But to replace and build new protein, it must have protein from food. Unlike carbohydrate and fat, protein contains nitrogen, and nitrogen is required to synthesize new protein.

Protein, therefore, is absolutely necessary for the maintenance, replacement, and growth of body tissue. But protein has other uses, too. Keep in mind that a bal- ance is needed between protein synthesis and protein degradation; to build lean muscle, synthesis must be greater than degradation. A messaging system in your brain directly affects protein synthesis in your muscles. When you stress your muscles through resistance training, your brain tells your muscle cells to start making new proteins, which ultimately leads to larger muscle tissue.

However, enough amino acids must be available to jump-start this process. By supplying your body with protein, particularly right after exercise and for the next 48 hours, you can keep yourself in an anabolic state. A review article published in the journal Applied Physiology and Nutrition Metabolism pointed out that you can maximize this process by doing high-inten- sity interval training HIIT.

This involves resistance-type exercise performed at a very high intensity for a short duration with brief periods of rest between bouts.

HIIT induces rapid changes that initiate genetic responses and messages to ultimately alter muscle cell proteins and generate new proteins. The net effect is increases in muscle size, strength, and power. HITT should not replace your heavy lifting. Thus, it is vital to supply the body with antioxidant-rich foods, along with protein, after exercise.

With this knowledge, you can target the protein and antioxidant needs of your muscles during and after training.

Protein and Fat Burning Studies have suggested that, compared with diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat, diets high in protein and low in fat promote greater weight loss.

One reason is that lean protein helps stoke your fat-burning fires. Its thermogenic heat-pro- ducing effect may be as high as 22 percent, compared with as low as 0. In other words, you burn more calories by doing nothing more than eating slightly more protein and less carbohydrate. A research article published in by Dr. Ten women aged 19 to 22 consumed either a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet, and then their energy production was measured two and a half hours after the meal.

The study found that energy production was percent higher on the high-protein diet than on the high-carbohydrate diet. Over the course of the day, postmeal energy production on the high-protein diet totaled 30 more calories at each test time. Johnston speculated that if this energy differential actually lasted for two to three hours after each meal because each test point was two and a half hours after each meal , the added thermogenic effect of the high-protein diet may What that means is that you can potentially burn more calories with extra protein in your diet.

The high-protein diet contained 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. An increased sense of satiety is associated with the thermogenic effect of protein. Women on high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate meals have a greater sensation of fullness during meals that lasts for longer periods compared with women on low-protein meals. The difference is associated with the thermogenic effect of the meal.

By following a high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet, you will feel more satisfied and have greater control over what and how much you eat. To capitalize on the thermogenic effect of high-protein meals, you should con- sume protein in frequent meals and snacks throughout the day.

This allows for the most efficient absorption and use of protein, and it helps to maintain higher levels of energy production to promote weight loss.

Furthermore, one problem with eating too much protein is that the excess can be stored as body fat. To build muscle, you must maintain a positive nitrogen balance.

Nitrogen leaves the body primarily in the urine and must be replaced by nitrogen taken in from food. Protein contains a fairly large concentration of nitrogen. Generally, healthy adults are in a state of nitrogen equilibrium, or zero balance—that is, their protein intake meets their protein requirement.

Browse more videos

A positive nitrogen balance means that the body is retaining dietary protein and using it to synthesize new tissue. If more nitrogen is excreted than consumed, the nitrogen balance is negative.

The body has lost nitrogen—and therefore protein. A negative nitrogen balance over time is dangerous, leading to muscle wasting and disease. This fact was clearly demonstrated in by a group of Tufts University researchers led by Wayne W. The researchers took a group of older men and women aged 56 to 80 who had never lifted weights before, placed them on either a low-protein diet or a high-protein diet, and measured their nitrogen balance before and after participation in a week strength-training program.

The low-protein diet was actually based on the RDA for protein 0. The high-protein diet was twice the RDA 1. The researchers wanted to see what effects each diet had on nitrogen balance during strength training.

What they discovered was interesting. Strength training enhanced nitrogen reten- tion in both groups—protein was being retained and used to synthesize new tissue. However, in the low-protein group, there was even better use of protein.

Strength training caused the body to adapt and meet the demand for protein—even when the bare minimum requirement for protein was met each day. Although this low level of protein intake may not be optimal for building muscle, this study shows how marvelously the body adjusts to what is available and how strength training makes muscle cells more efficient at using available protein to synthesize new tissue.

So, exactly how much protein should you eat for maximum performance and results? That question has been hotly debated in science for more than years and by athletes since the time of the ancient Greeks. Nutrition scientists have had difficulty reaching a consensus on protein intake for several reasons.

One has to do with the type and frequency of exercise. In endurance exercise, for example, protein can act as kind of a spare fuel tank, kicking in amino acids to supply fuel. If protein is in short supply, endurance athletes can peter out easily.

Power Eating: Build Muscle, Increase Energy, Cut Fat

In strength sports, additional dietary protein is needed to provide enough amino acids to synthesize protein in the muscles. For generations, strength trainers have looked to protein as the nutri- tional panacea for muscle building.

Is there any scientific basis to this belief? New research shows that as a strength trainer, you may benefit from eating some extra protein.

One way to reverse the downhill slide is to strength train. Study after study has shown that you can make significant muscle gains well into your 90s if you strength train. Scientific research indicates that senior strength trainers can get a real boost from additional protein.

At Tufts University, researchers gave supplemental protein to a group of elderly strength trainers, while a con- trol group took no supplements. Based on CAT scans of muscle, the supple- ment group gained much more muscle mass than the control group did.

Can you get the same benefits from extra protein? Many studies say yes. Two groups of young bodybuilders fol- lowing a four-week strength-training program followed the same diet, but with one exception.

One group ate 2. By the end of the study, both groups had gained muscle, but those eating the higher amount of protein had gained five times more!

Protein Requirements for Endurance: Sexual Inequality Requirements for carbohydrate and protein differ among men and women involved in endurance exercise. A study of female cyclists looked into how much protein women actually need. Men get a huge muscle protein synthesis boost from consuming protein after exercise; women do not. These female cyclists had a total protein requirement of 1. Men have a requirement much closer to 1. Using the data, we can extrapolate for men and lower the amount of protein for women to 1.

I like to give a little extra leeway in order to stay in a positive nitrogen balance in case, as happens frequently, endurance athletes do not consume their full need for calories. With a calorie deficit, protein needs are always higher. Control groups with both sedentary participants and strength-training participants were also included.

Two exciting findings emerged. First, increasing protein intake to 1. There were no such changes in the low-protein group. Second, upping protein intake from 1. This latter finding suggests that a plateau was reached, meaning that the participants got more protein than they could use from 2. Studies should always be interpreted with caution.

Your requirement is higher than the current DRI of 0. Muscle Building With increases in training intensity, you need additional protein to support muscle growth and increases in certain blood compounds. On the basis of the latest research with strength trainers, I recommend that you eat 2. Aerobic Exercise On average, most strength trainers and bodybuilders perform an hour or two of intense weight training daily, plus five or more hours a week of aerobic exercise.

If you are in this category, your protein needs are further elevated. One of the BCAAs, leucine, is broken down to make alanine, another amino acid, which is converted by the liver into blood sugar glucose for energy. This glucose is transported to the working muscles to be used for energy. The harder you work aerobically, the more leucine your body breaks down for extra fuel. In addition, studies show that obtaining amino acids such as leucine stimulates muscle repair, as well as muscular development, in the period following exercise.

Given this special use of amino acids as an energy and recovery source, you should increase your protein intake if your training program includes more than five hours a week of an endurance program.

You may require as much as 2. With the preceding example, you would calculate your requirements as follows: And you may be lifting weights as a part of it all. Although years ago cross-training athletes were encouraged to load up on car- bohydrate, in more recent years experts have contended that protein is equally essential for reaching new performance heights. However, protein is slightly lower in order to leave room in the diet for increased carbohydrate, which is critical in the diet of an endurance athlete who is cross-training.

Cross-training athletes thus need 1. For example: Like endurance athletes, they need higher intakes of dietary carbohydrate than strength athletes do, and they can ben- efit from some carbohydrate loading before competition.

Cross-trainers should use the updated, shorter version of carbohydrate loading, which entails long duration training one week prior to the event to deplete muscle glycogen stores. They should then begin tapering their exercise and increase carbohydrate consumption three or four days prior to the event, reaching a pre-event rest day during which they take in about grams of dietary carbohydrate.

Competition Dieting or Trimming Fat When cutting calories to get lean for looks or for competition, you risk losing body- firming muscle. Diet- ing bodybuilders need 2. Here is an example: For more infor- mation on getting cut for competition, see chapter There are tears in the tiny structures of your muscle fibers and leaks in your muscle cells.

Over the next 24 to 48 hours, muscle protein will break down, and additional muscle glycogen will be used. These are some of the chief metabolic events that occur in the aftermath of a hard workout. And although these events might look like havoc, they are actually a necessary part of recovery—the repair and growth of muscle tissue that take place after every workout. During recovery, the body replenishes muscle glycogen and synthesizes new muscle protein.

In the process, muscle fibers are made bigger and stronger to protect themselves against future trauma. You can do much to enhance the recovery process—including consuming protein before and after your workout. Having a small meal that includes protein and carbohydrate before your strength-training workout is very beneficial. Peter W. Lemon, who has done cutting-edge research on protein, noted that protein meals consumed before exercise can result in greater gains in both muscle mass and strength than with training alone.

The evidence here is too compelling to ignore, which is why I recommend small preexercise meals that include protein. The next step is to eat a small meal immediately after exercise. Your body has already digested your preexercise protein, and it is working for you at the mus- cular level.

Two or three hours later, as that effect wears off, your body begins to demand protein for the repair and recovery phase following a workout. According to research, you can jump-start the glycogen-making process by eating 0. For example, if you weigh pounds 68 kg , you should eat 34 grams of protein. Insulin is like an acceleration pedal. First, it speeds up the movement of glucose and amino acids into cells, and second, it activates a special enzyme crucial to glycogen synthesis. Additional research shows that a carbohydrate and protein supplement ingested after exercise triggers the release of growth hormone in addition to insulin.

Both are conducive to muscle growth and recovery. Also, the availability of essential amino acids see table 2. On the basis of these findings, I recommend that you consume 0.

See table 3. Table 2. Adapted from M.

Di Pasquale, , Proteins and amino acids in exercise and sport. In Energy-yielding macronutrients and energy metabolism in sports nutrition, edited by J. Driskell and I.

Wolinsky Philadelphia: CRC Press , We advocated for schools to focus more on creating responsible citizens who could think and decide for themselves. We know behavior change is slow, and it occurs in small increments. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Solum mentitum quo et, no ancillae legendos mel. Jon is not alone, and success for children like him is rare.

To our acquisitions editor, Justin Klug, thank you for taking me seriously when I proposed a new edition and for shepherding it through the publication process with understanding and zeal. Falli omnesque vivendum eos ad, ei hinc diceret eos.