Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. a report on thermal. PDF | THIS paper briefly states the remedial measures to minimize the loss of performance on account of variations in uncontrollable input. A Seminar Report on " THERMAL POWER PLANT " For the partial fulfillment of the Layout of surface condenser (scroll to page 11 of 34 pdf pages)
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Thermal Power Generation Paper Presentation & Seminar Preview of the attached files: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the. Trends and Future Outlook for Thermal Power Plants. Fuji Electric's Medium- capacity Steam Turbines “FET Series”. Present Developmental Status of Fuji . 4 INTRODUCTION Kota Super Thermal Power Plant is Rajasthan's first major Coal fired Power plant. It is located on the left bank of the Chambal River at.
This cleaning up of flue gases, however, only occurs in plants that are fitted with the appropriate technology. Still, the majority of coal-fired power plants in the world do not have these facilities. Legislation in Europe has been efficient to reduce flue gas pollution. Japan has been using flue gas cleaning technology for over 30 years and the US has been doing the same for over 25 years. China is now beginning to grapple with the pollution caused by coal-fired power plants. Other devices use catalysts to remove Nitrous Oxide compounds from the flue gas stream.
A typical flue gas stack may be — metres — ft tall to disperse the remaining flue gas components in the atmosphere. The tallest flue gas stack in the world is In the United States and a number of other countries, atmospheric dispersion modeling studies are required to determine the flue gas stack height needed to comply with the local air pollution regulations.
In the case of existing flue gas stacks that exceed the GEP stack height, any air pollution dispersion modeling studies for such stacks must use the GEP stack height rather than the actual stack height. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters.
Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.
Ash extractor is used to discharge ash from Municipal solid waste—fired boilers. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system.
Impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes.
Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water, and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant DM. Any ions in the final water from this process consist essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which recombine to form pure water.
Very pure DM water becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen.
The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with air.
DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser i. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by a de-aerator through an ejector attached to the condenser. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal.
The oil must kept warm above its pour point in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply coal or oil is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.
Once the unit is "tripped" i. This is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore could warp or bend by millionths of inches. This small shaft deflection, only detectable by eccentricity meters, would be enough to cause damaging vibrations to the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted.
The shaft is therefore automatically turned at low speed about one percent rated speed by the barring gear until it has cooled sufficiently to permit a complete stop. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.
Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses.
This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the generator enclosure first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.
The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere.
The generator also uses water cooling.
Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high-voltage windings. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used. The generator high-voltage leads are normally large aluminium channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminium bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators.
The generator high-voltage leads are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high-voltage electrical substation usually in the range of kV to kV for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high-voltage leads.
Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. Smaller units may share a common generator step-up transformer with individual circuit breakers to connect the generators to a common bus. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.
This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. Fossil fuel power plant Most thermal stations use coal as the main fuel. Raw coal is transported from coal mines to a power station site by trucks, barges, bulk cargo ships or railway cars. Generally, when shipped by railways, the coal cars are sent as a full train of cars. The coal received at site may be of different sizes.
The railway cars are unloaded at site by rotary dumpers or side tilt dumpers to tip over onto conveyor belts below. The crushed coal is then sent by belt conveyors to a storage pile.
Normally, the crushed coal is compacted by bulldozers, as compacting of highly volatile coal avoids spontaneous ignition. The crushed coal is conveyed from the storage pile to silos or hoppers at the boilers by another belt conveyor system. There are different types of Thermal power plants based on the fuel used to generate the steam such as coal, gas, Diesel etc. Public sector undertaking NTPC and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants.
Apart from NTPC and other state level operators, some private companies are also operating the power plants.
Here is some list of currently operating coal based thermal power plants in India. As on July 31, , and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Coal or Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydro and wind power.
As of , India had 19 nuclear power reactors in operation generating 4, MW while 4 other are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 2, MW. Nineteen nuclear power reactors operated at six sites by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India produce 4, Public sector undertaking National Thermal Power Corporation and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants.
Re: Thermal Power Generation PPT PDF Seminar Report & Paper Presentation
Here is some list of currently operating Coal based Thermal power plants in India. As on July 31, , and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Coal or Lignite based power plants in india are GAIL is the main source of fuel for most of these plants. Here is some list of presently operating plants. Normally the diesel based power plants are either operated from remote locations or operated to cater peak load demands.
Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report 74537
Infrastructural facilities like adequate water availability in Kota Barrage throughout the year. Stage Unit No. Crore I 1 Kota Super Thermal Power Station is reckoned as one of the best, efficient and prestigious power station of the country. Abdul Kalam on The achievements made by KTPS during are as under: In compliance to Govt. Associated Cement Co. Birla Cement Works Ltd. Grasim Industries Ltd. Shree Cement Ltd.
The ash is provided free of cost and has been utilized by various small entrepreneurs i. LOCATION suratgarh super thermal power station is located 27 km from suratgarh km from suratgarh to biradhwal on nh15,then 12km in east from nh Capacity MW Cost Rs.
Oil Sp. Plant capacity 2 X MW 2. Location Village: Thumbli At Giral,43 Km from Barmer. U 1 U 2 i Confirmation of Lignite supply Statutory no objection clearances: U 1 U 2 i Defence Clearance Land Cost Schedule of Commissioning Unit 1 Commissioned on Unit 2 Commissioned on Unit-I Parameter 07 Generation 1.
Baran Rajasthan. About acres Site Elevation: Zero discharge concept will be adopted. Complete effluent water will be treated re-used.
Nil Noise Pollution levels: Will be maintained well within the statutory stipulations Solid Waste management: Land Acquisition completed. Water allocation has been made. MOEF Clearance awaited. The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers.
If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration. An important class of thermal power station is associated with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products. Since the efficiency of the plant is fundamentally limited by the ratio of the absolute temperatures of the steam at turbine input and output, efficiency improvements require use of higher temperature, and therefore higher pressure, steam.
Historically, other working fluids such as mercury have been experimentally used in a mercury vapor turbine power plant, since these can attain higher temperatures than water at lower working pressures. However, the obvious hazards of toxicity, and poor heat transfer properties, have ruled out mercury as a working fluid.
In common speech, steam most often refers to the visible white mist that condenses above boiling water as the hot vapor mixes with the cooler air. Turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow and converts it into useful work.
The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum, with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.
Early turbine exare windmills and waterwheels. Fig Typical turbine Electric generator An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. Fig Typical Generator A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applyingheat energy to water. A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required.
The steam is used to turn a turbine, which is connected to a generator. When the turbine turns, electricity is generated and given as output by the generator, which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines. Fig steam power generation Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station 1.
Thermal Power Generation Full Seminar Report 74537
Cooling tower Steam Control valve Deaerator High pressure steam Superheater 2. There have been perhaps about a dozen turbo-electric ships in which a steam-driven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion.
Thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy. History Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt.
The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in , also used reciprocating steam engines. As generator sizes increased, eventually turbines took over they encres the hose power. Thus hydel power plants cannot be installed with ease and are limited to certain locations. Widely available alternate flues: Many alternate fuels such as coal, diesel, nuclear fuels, geo-thermal energy sources, solar-energy, biomass fuels can be used to generate power using steam cycles.
Maintenance and lubrication cost is lower: Once installed, these require less maintenance costs and on repairs. Lubrication is not a major problem compared to hydel power plant. Coal is abundant: Coal is available in excess quantities in India and is rich form of energy available at relatively lower cost.
Working fluid remains within the system, and need not be replaced every time thus simplifies the process. By fuel Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine generator.
Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine. A coal-fired power station produces electricity by burning coal to generate steam, and has the side-effect of producing a large amount of carbon dioxide, which is released from burning coal and contributes to global warming Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks.
Biomass Fuelled Power Plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane, municipal solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass. Solar thermal electric plants use sunlight to boil water, which turns the generator.
By prime mover Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases air and combustion products to directly operate the turbine. Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the hot exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants.
Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage Microturbines, Stirling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are lowcost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production Efficiency Power is energy per unit time. The power output or capacity of an electric plant can be expressed in units of megawatts electric MWe.
This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics See: Carnot cycle. The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat.Because the metallic materials it contacts are subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is highly purified before use.
Project cost crores 5. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Thermal capacity of the system is MWh. Baran Rajasthan. Some advanced reactor designs being studied, such as the very high temperature reactor, advanced gas-cooled reactor and supercritical water reactor, would operate at temperatures and pressures similar to current coal plants, producing comparable thermodynamic efficiency.
Not all Thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be burned and more work to be done per cycle, increasing the power output of the engine.
Figure 1 shows map of India with solar radiation levels in different parts of the country.
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