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The book suffices the need of the two semester course on Analog and Digital Communication Systems. The text distinctly deals with the analog and the digital . Noise The introductory study of analog and digital communications is roles of modulation and noise in communication systems by doing four things: • First, the . Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communications Systems, 3rd Ed. McGillem and ANALOG. CONMNMUNICATION. SYSTEMS. Third Edition y. B. P. LATHI.
But the ear does not require a vast range of frequencies to elicit meaning from ordinary speech; the vast majority of sounds we make that constitute intelligible speech fall between Hz and 3,Hz. So, the phone company typically allotted a total bandwidth of 4,Hz for voice transmission.
Remember that the total frequency spectrum of twisted-pair is 1MHz. To provision a voice-grade analog circuit, bandwidth-limiting filters are put on that circuit to filter out all frequencies above 4,Hz. That's why analog circuits can conduct only fairly low-speed data communications.
Introduction to Digital Communications
The maximum data rate over an analog facility is How 56Kbps Modems Break the The other end of the connection has to be digital. So, in other words, if you're using a 56Kbps modem to access your Internet service provider ISP , you have an analog connection from your home to the local exchange. Analog facilities have limited bandwidth, which means they cannot support high-speed data.
Another characteristic of analog is that noise is accumulated as the signal traverses the network. As the signal moves across the distance, it loses power and becomes impaired by factors such as moisture in the cable, dirt on a contact, and critters chewing on the cable somewhere in the network.
By the time the signal arrives at the amplifier, it is not only attenuated, it is also impaired and noisy. One of the problems with a basic amplifier is that it is a dumb device. All it knows how to do is to add power, so it takes a weak and impaired signal, adds power to it, and brings it back up to its original power level. But along with an increased signal, the amplifier passes along an increased noise level. So in an analog network, each time a signal goes through an amplifier, it accumulates noise.
After you mix together coffee and cream, you can no longer separate them. The same concept applies in analog networks: After you mix the signal and the noise, you can no longer separate the two, and, as a result, you end up with very high error rates.
Reverse path time division multiple access TDMA signals are converted from RF to analog, fiber at the nodes and piped back to the headend over fiber. Other systems operate in the same way except that the band from 5 to 30 MHz is used between the fiber nodes and the home HCT.
The "star" topology of HFC provides more reverse path bandwidth per home because of the lower number of homes connected to a node. Cable Becomes a System Cable in the s has evolved into a complete communications system that provides broadband delivery to the home of many channels, both basic unscrambled as well as premium scrambled channels. Through the use of computer-controlled system managers coupled with a conditional access system, individual set-top terminals can be quickly and efficiently electronically addressed to allow for the descrambling of particular premium channels.
To aid in program selection, advanced analog set-top terminals today feature downloaded fully integrated program guides and a system navigator that informs subscribers of the vast programming available.
Also, using the kbps average bandwidth available in the vertical blanking interval of a standard video channel, these units incorporate "virtual channels" that can be used to send sports updates, financial services, news, and other types of digital services.
These units also can be equipped with a standard read-only-memory ROM -based operating system or with an addressably renewable operating system AROS that allows the operator to download new software to the HCT via the system manager to provide new user interfaces, unique electronic program guide on-screen formats, bitmapped graphics, and multilingual on-screen displays.
With an integrated IPPV module, subscribers can view events at their leisure. Also, NVOD capability offers subscribers advantages similar to those of VCR tape rental by defining events with staggered start times on multiple channels. Advanced HCTs have the capability to emulate a VCR's pause, fast-forward, and rewind features by making use of the staggered simulcast nature of NVOD channels and the built-in intelligent software resident in the HCT to keep track of the appropriate channel needed to view a desired program segment.
Two technological breakthroughs in digital processing are clearing the way for digital video and audio program content. The first is the adoption of standards for digitizing, compressing, and decompressing video programming. This international standards group laid the groundwork for standardizing the algorithms, syntax, and transport format necessary to allow interoperability among different suppliers of video compression and decompression systems.
The attitude at the outset was that if digital television was to flourish, equipment built by different vendors must be compatible and interchangeable. The international standards adopted by the MPEG committee allow freedom to be creative in the encoding process within the parameters of the defined "encoding language" while maintaining compatibility with standard MPEG decoders.
The analogy in the computer programming world is to say that software programmers can approach a programming problem in many different ways; however, if their program is is written in C, for example, any C compiler can compile and execute the program. The second development was a means for delivering the digital signals to the customer.
Schemes for modulating and demodulating an RF carrier using either quadrature amplitude modulation QAM or vestigial sideband modulation VSB have been developed. These approaches are compatible with standard analog cable systems and can deliver data information rates up to 36 Mbps in a single 6-MHz channel.
The combination of digital compression of video and audio and digital transmission over cable can increase the number of video services in a single 6-MHz channel by a factor of approximately 5 to 10 depending on programming content and picture resolution.
Not only does digital processing increase capacity, but it also allows greater flexibility in the types of services that can be provided.
No longer will there be the restriction that the information provided be a video signal. Digital computer games, digital music, and other multimedia applications will all be likely candidates for the new broadband digital cable. Migration Strategy for Broadband Cable Systems of the Future So how do we evolve from the cable system of today that broadcasts analog video services to the home to the fully interactive digital system of the future?
This evolution will most likely occur in four phases. The first phase in the migration would employ advanced analog home communications terminals HCTs that are compatible with existing hybrid fiber coax distribution plants.
These terminals, available today, not only can tune up to MHz but also have both forward- and reverse-path digital communications capability for downloading digital applications, providing on-screen display of program guides and hand-held remote navigators for ordering pay-per-view and NVOD.
These digital services would be overlaid on the HFC cable plant using unused spectrum above the standard analog video channels. This strategy would allow the digital services to coexist with analog broadcast channels from which most of today's revenue is derived. System upgrades and even "new builds" will need to provide today's analog channels to existing set-top terminals and customers who are content in viewing basic and premium scrambled broadcast services.
A hybrid fiber coax system transmits the digital information on analog RF carriers designed to be frequency multiplexed into a normal broadband channel.
The bandwidth required is compatible with a normal analog video channel so that the digital signals can be assigned a vacant space in the spectrum or, because of enhanced ruggedness, can be placed at the upper end of the spectrum outside the guaranteed performance range of a distribution plant. This phase would require an incremental upgrade in the HCT to provide more memory and enhanced reverse path signaling and full interactivity.
However, the major upgrades would evolve over time as the plant architecture migrates from a "tree and branch" to a "star" configuration and more cable headends become interconnected. This change would be coupled with the growth of content-provider digital applications stored on file servers, market demand for specialized applications, and the success of true ''video dial tone" as compared with NVOD.
The final phase, illustrated in Figure 1, is a fully integrated broadband network that provides full connectivity to the home for POTS services, broadband digital modems for personal computers PCs , analog and digital video services, digital applications, and utility monitoring.
This last phase could happen as slowly or as rapidly as needed depending on market demand for interactive services. The phases outlined make sense because they allow for the coexistence of analog only, digital broadcast, and full interactive services and HCTs on the same system and do not require flash cuts to implement, nor do they sacrifice analog video revenues.
Thus, the revenues track with the cost of upgrades. Also, developing an economic model that allows enough incremental revenues to support needed upgrades will be key.
The cost of the fully interactive digital HCT depends on the availability of a cost-effective set of application-specific integrated circuits ASICs for digital and analog signal processing and digital memory inherent in the interactive digital terminal.
Currently most if not all the necessary ASICs have been designed to perform the critical processing functions.
Also, microprocessors and graphics accelerators are available for a platform for the terminal operating system OS and user interface UI.Other systems operate in the same way except that the band from 5 to 30 MHz is used between the fiber nodes and the home HCT. Instrumentation Amplifier.
This book reviews the fundamentals of electromagnetism in passive and active circuit elements, highlighting various effects and potential problems in designing a new circuit. These units also can be equipped with a standard read-only-memory ROM -based operating system or with an addressably renewable operating system AROS that allows the operator to download new software to the HCT via the system manager to provide new user interfaces, unique electronic program guide on-screen formats, bitmapped graphics, and multilingual on-screen displays.
Electromagnetics for High-Speed Analog and Digital Communication Circuits
This availability of greater channel capacity led to the development of the cable tuner or "set-top converter. Stensby Online NA Pages English This note provides the review of elementary signals and systems including the Hilbert transform, cross and autocorrelation, power density spectrum and the Wiener-Khinchine theorem.
The first phase in the migration would employ advanced analog home communications terminals HCTs that are compatible with existing hybrid fiber coax distribution plants.
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